The abuse of and addiction to opioids and opiates such as morphine, codeine, and hydrocodone is a serious global problem that affects the health, social, and economic welfare of all societies around the world. It has been estimated that between 26.4 million and 36 million people abuse opioids worldwide, with an estimated 2.1 million people in the United States suffering from substance use disorders related to prescription opioid pain relievers. It is also estimated that over in excess of half a million people are addicted to heroin (diacetylmorphine). This compound is often confirmed in biological samples by the metabolite 6 mono-acetyl morphine. The consequences of this abuse have been devastating and are on the rise. For example, the number of unintentional overdose deaths from prescription pain relievers has soared in the United States, more than quadrupling since 1999. There is also growing evidence to suggest a relationship between increased non-medical use of opioid analgesics and heroin abuse in the United States.
UCT has been at the forefront of toxicological analysis of opiates (those compounds originating from the poppy plant), and opioids (compounds structurally related to morphine but produced synthetically e.g hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone) using its world renowned Clean Screen® DAU and XtrackT® sorbents. These SPE columns are produced in 1, 3, 6 mL and in 10 mL formats with 50 to 200 mg bed mass as well well plate formats (48/96). These columns are famous for the simultaneous extraction of morphine, codeine, diacetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone,, 6 mono acetylmorphine from samples of blood, urine, and tissue samples with high recoveries, great reproducibility and low matrix effects.
The analysis Opiates/Opioids has been reported in peer review articles using UCT sorbents:
Samano, K.L., et al., (2015)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology 39: 655-661.
Rana, S., et al., (2014)
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 4:100-1007.
Langman, L., et al., (2013)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 35: 352-359.
Barnes, A, L., et al., (2003)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology 27: 402-406.
Ropero-Miller, J., (2002)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology 26:524-528.
Salem, M., et al., (2001)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology 25: 93-98.
O’Neal, C.L., and Poklis, A., (1997)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology 21: 427-432.
Broussard, L.A., et al., (1997)
Clinical Chemistry 43: 1029-1032.